English grammar – Infinitives, gerunds, determiners, prepositions, relatives, adjectives, tenses, conditionals, adverbs, interrogatives, passives, semi-colons, punctuation, semi-colon and state verbs etc – Do you find English grammar confusing? Do you want some help? Do you hate grammar? Don’t worry, I am here to help you. Here is some grammatical information to help you… What is a Gerund? This is a noun formed from a verb by adding –ing. Not all words with -ing are gerunds. What is the infinitive? The “full infinitive” is to + the verb. Examples:
- ‘to do’
- to be
The “bare infinitive” is just the base verb (do or be in the above example). The infinitive is often used to name an action or state without specifying the subject. Examples:
- I want to go to the cinema
- I want to be a teacher
Gerunds and infinitives are forms of verbs that act like nouns. They can follow adjectives and other verbs. Gerunds can also follow prepositions. Some verbs can take either the gerund or the infinitive with no loss of meaning. For example:
- “It started to rain.” has the same meaning as “It started raining.”
Sometimes the use of the gerund or infinitive changes the meaning of the sentence. For example:
- “I remembered to do my homework” is not the same as “I remembered doing my homework.”
English grammar – Gramatyka angielska
Example of a “Present Simple” sentence:
- Positive: He speaks.
- Negative: He does not speak.
- Question: Does he speak?
When is it used? The simple present tense is used to describe an action that is regular, true or normal. Signal words: always, every day/week etc, normally, often, seldom, sometimes and regularly. Example of a “Present Perfect” sentence:
- Positive: He has spoken.
- Negative: He has not spoken.
- Question: Has he spoken?
When is it used? There is always a connection with the past and with the present. There are three typical uses for the present perfect tense – To talk about an experience from the past. We are not interested in when it was done. We only want to know if you did it, for example: I have never eaten caviar. To talk about a change over time, for example: My English has really improved since I moved to Australia. To list the accomplishments of a person or people, for example: Man has walked on the Moon. To say that an action which we expected has not happened, for example: James has not finished his homework yet. To talk about several different actions which have occurred in the past at different times: The army has attacked that city five times. To limit the time we are looking in for an experience. We can do this with: in the last week and this week etc, for example: Have you been to Mexico in the last year?
Signal words: already, ever, just, never, yet, recently, lately, still, since and for. Do you know your English Grammar?